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> 证书法老王

南京法老王教你真正同声传译的技巧 

发布时间: 2017-12-03  点击:         打印本页

  同传是一个融理论和实践为一体的职业,我们承认他确实不容易,但并非就高不可攀,否则也就不会有今天的职业培训了,既然他的实践性很强,那么,肯定其中有大量的技巧在里面。
  我总结了一下,同传技巧的核心或者灵魂是断句,即将简单句划分为主谓宾,将复句断分为不同的意群 (sense group), 并最终还是回到主谓宾上来。下面我将从几个方面给大家系统介绍一下一些同传技巧,这些技巧有些是从我的实践活动中获取的。
  1 、节奏章法:
  即法老王的切入点和时间的选择。英文的传译音节通常比中文稍多一点,比如,如果读一种中文要用时 30 秒,用相似的节奏读该段中文的英文法老王稿可能要耗时 35 秒以上,所以,演讲中文稿,传译英文时,速度需要加快一点,反之则稍微慢一点。就切入时间来讲的话,可以根据自己对语言的驾驭能力以及自己的瞬时记忆力来具体对待和处理。如果自己相对在这两方面都有比较扎实的功底,则可以滞后演讲人 3/4 句或一句,如果欠缺一点, 则必须在滞后半句后及时跟上。
  注意:同传法老王是内容对内容的法老王,而不是词组对词组的法老王,首先必须在理解的基础上才能动口法老王,否则一些独立的词组或者短语是不能传递有效信息的。换而言之,并不是演讲者蹦出一个单词你就紧紧跟上,这样不久你就会发现自己被演讲者无意中导入了一个死胡同。
  2 、欧化句式:
  同传在词语的法老王上可以做到地道和相对准确,但句子结构不可能向交传那样按照中文的句式习惯组织安排,对于英汉传译,往往需要采用英语句式的顺序:
  例 1 : Frankly, ideas and goods will travel around the globe with or without our help.
  译:坦率地讲,思想和商品都将会在全球流通,不管有没有我们的帮助。
  例 2 : we should look for polices which help and do not harm our neighbors.
  译:我们应该寻求各种政策,使之帮助而不是损害我们的领国。
  3 、意群断句和巧用连词:
  即我刚才所提到的大可不必紧跟演讲人,只要保持半句到大半句即可,将句子划分为不同的句群。处理好长句,是同传的基本功之一,法老王长句,除了断成意群外还有一个关键要掌握,即英文句子之所以长是因为避免重复使用同一个词,于是用 who, which, that 来代替主语或者宾语,因而使得句子很长,而在中文中就不怕重复使用这个词,例如:that is the single monetary policy which will be discussed at the next European Union conference.
  译:那就是单一货币政策//该政策将在下一届欧盟会议上讨论。
  为了保证译出语的连贯性和准确性,同传时尽量使用译入语的文法结构,在将其断为多个句群后可以使用一些润滑剂,即连词,将单个的句群联系起来,如:
  how can the European Union contribute to the development of European film and television industry which is competitive in the world market, forward looking and capable of radiating the influence of European culture and of creating jobs in Europe?
  译:欧盟怎样做才能对欧洲的电影和电视业有所贡献,//使它在国际市场上具有竞争力//使其前景不错并且有能力发挥欧洲文化的影响,并且在欧洲创造更多的就业机会呢?
  该句大体上循着原句的结构,在将其断为不同的意群后采用了一些连词将其有机地串起来,效果不错。
  再比如:
  The uniqueness of the Caux Round Table lies not in our expertise in intergovernmental relationship, but in our dedication to honest discussion of international issues and to building trust and friendship among corporate leader form Japan, Europe and US.
  译: 科克思圆桌会议是独特的//不过这不在于我们擅长改善政府间的关系//而在于我们致力于坦诚的探讨//即探讨国际问题//同时还致力于建立信任和友谊 // 特别是在企业领导之间//他们来自于美国,日本和欧洲。
  例如: it is normal for companies to suffer significant losses at the start of operation.
  译:正常的是//公司会有较大的亏损//在刚开业时尤其如此。例如:our foreign secretary on one occasion spelt our objectives in terms of three quite simple principles which I think are still true.
  译:我们的外交大臣有一次阐明了我们的目标//它主要包括三项简单的原则// 我想现在还适用。
  4、调整顺序:
  在一些有 after and before 的句子中可以将其反说,比如:
  I would like to make one point clear before I move on to the next point.
  译:我想先澄清一下,然后再讲下一部分。
  I would like to move on to the next part after I clarify one point.
  我想谈下一部分,在这之前先澄清一点。
  The Japanese surrendered in 1945 after the US practiced two bombs.
  日本在 1945 年投降了,在这之前,美国投放了两颗原子弹。
  5、 转换词性和语态
  1 ) 名词转动词
  例如: the development and application of new telecom service, 如果听到整个句子的主语后才开始切入法老王的话就会稍微显得滞后了一些,此时我们可以试着将这些名字法老王成动词,这样其实也符合英语的表达方式,可以译为:开发和运用新的电信业务。再如;
  In China, the full opening up and the profound reform in the public services areas to the foreign counterparts greatly give impetus to the development of the tertiary industry. 可以将该句法老王成:在中国, 全面开放和深化改革公共服务领域,并将其向国外同行开放,这极大地推动第三产业的发展。相应地还有一些同类的表达方式:
  Clear evidence of:清楚地表明
  Give impetus to: 有力地推动
  An obvious violation of 显然违反了
  2)被动转主动:
  英语中大量地使用被动句,目的主要是为了强调或者平衡句子结构,这种表达方式与汉语有较大的差别,所以在法老王英语中的被动语态时有些吃力,特别是当句子的主语比较长时更是困难,在这种情况下,我建议将语态由被动转成主动,往往有一种柳暗花明的感觉:比如: Arrangement must be made to guarantee the basic life necessities which could be available to the people in the earthquake hit areas. 必须做出安排
  再如:
  China‘s diplomatic practice is seriously guided by the five principles of peaceful coexistence. 可以法老王为:中国的外交活动是严格遵循原则的,即和平共处 5 项原则。
  6 、纠错诀窍:
  一般来说,在同传中不会有回过头来重新改正自己错误的可能性,但也不绝对,所以,如果具备了改错的空间,当然提倡有错必改。对于中翻英的改错,应该在所说错的地方赶紧加上: I mean, or rather, 对于英翻中来说,在说错的地方马上更上:应该是,或者准确地说,应该是
  7 、紧跟数字:
  同传和交传最大的不同点是给译员的反映空间不足,所以在交传时所遇到的笔记问题在同传中就相对淡化了。针对数字问题,在同传中一定要紧跟演讲者的数字,否则瞬间记忆无法对很多的数字进行长时间的保存。
  8 、丢车保帅,随机应变。
  因为同传的性质决定了不可能对演讲者的内容做出 100% 的法老王,那么在这里面就存在一个价值判断和信息取舍的问题了,无论译员遇到多大的问题,一定要记住:法老王活动都将风雨无阻。所谓的丢车保帅指的是如果一旦出现译员所听到的信息有些模糊时就不要再将精力放在回忆那些模糊的信息,而是尽量将听到的和理解了的信息立刻法老王出去,同时,如果句子中出现了太多的修饰性的词语可以在法老王时将其进行取舍以保证句子中的核心意思的完整和相对准确和到位的法老王。
  如:从帕米尔高原到东海之滨,从北国冰城到南沙群岛,到处洋溢着伟大的中国人民欢庆北京申奥成功的欢乐气息。
  9 、训练方法:
  在巴黎高等法老王学院采用的是数字或者文章逆诵法:
  即:从 300 开始数,数到一个数字时停下来法老王,完了之后再继续接着刚才的数字往回数,其理论根据是训练译员的两栖作战能力,即左耳朵进译入语,大脑分析时右耳朵再接着听译入语的下一部分。
  概括起来,同传的技巧可以概括为八个字:顺译、断句、重复、删减。
  Si is an integration of theory and Practice for the development of occupation, we admit that he really is not easy, but not too high to be reached, otherwise it would not have today's occupation training, since his practice is very strong, so, certainly including a large number of skills in.
  I summed up the core skills, Si or soul is divided into simple sentences which is SVO sentence, the fault is divided into different groups (sense, group) and eventually returned to SVO. I will give you the system from several aspects to introduce some Si skills, these skills are acquired from my practice.
  1, rhythmic chapter method:
  It is the choice of the point of entry and the time of translation. Interpreting English syllable usually slightly more than Chinese, for example, if you read a Chinese to in 30 seconds, read the section Chinese with similar rhythm English translation may take more than 35 seconds, so Chinese speech draft, interpreting English, need to speed up the speed a little, otherwise a little slower. In terms of the time to cut in, you can deal with and deal with it according to his ability to control the language and his own instantaneous memory. If you have a solid foundation in these two aspects, you can delay the speaker's 3/4 sentence or sentence. If there is a lack of it, you must catch up with the delayed half sentence.
  Note: the contents of the contents of the simultaneous translation is the translation, rather than phrase for phrase translation, translation must first to speak on the basis of understanding, or some independent phrase or phrase is not efficient information transfer. In other words, it is not the speaker who jumps out a word to catch up with you, so you will soon find yourself being led into a dead end by the speaker.
  2, European sentence:
  It can do an authentic and relatively accurate in terms of the translation, but the sentence structure may not pass that sentence in accordance with the Chinese arrange to pay for customs, English Chinese translation, often require the use of English sentence order:
  Example 1:Frankly, ideas and goods will travel around the globe with or without
  Frankly speaking, both ideas and goods will circulate around the world, regardless of our help.
  Example 2:we should look for polices which help and do not harm our
  Translation: we should seek all kinds of policies to help it, not to harm our country.
  3, meaning punctuate and clever use of conjunctions:
  I just mentioned the need not follow the speaker, as long as the half sentence more than half of the sentence to sentence, will be divided into different sentences. To deal with long sentences, is one of the basic skills of simultaneous translation of long sentences, in addition to break into meaningful but also a key to grasp, namely English sentences have long because of avoiding the repetition of the same word, then use the who, which, that to replace the subject or object, so that the sentence is very long, and is not afraid of repeat in Chinese in the use of the word, for example: that is the single monetary policy which will be discussed at the next European Union conference.
  That is the single monetary policy / the policy will be discussed at the next meeting of the European union.
  In order to ensure the coherence of the source language and accuracy, try to use the grammar structure of the target language in the Si, broken into multiple sentences can be used after some lubricants, namely conjunctions, individual sentences together, such as:
  How can the European Union contribute to the development of European, development, and it is also known as the following three aspects.
  Translation: how can the EU of European film and television industry contribution / make it are competitive in the international market and the prospect of a good / / and have the ability to play the influence of European culture and of creating jobs in Europe?
  In general, the sentence is followed by the structure of the original sentence. After it is broken into a different group of meaning groups, some conjunctions are used to string them together, and the effect is good.
  Again, for example:
  The uniqueness of the Caux Round Table lies not in our expertise in intergovernmental relationship, but in our dedication to honest discussion of international issues and to building trust and friendship among corporate leader form Japan, Europe and US.
  The Kocs roundtable is unique but it is not / / we are good at improving relations between the government and the / / that we engage in honest discussion of international issues and / / / / is also committed to building trust and friendship / / they are from the United States especially in the enterprise leadership between Japan and Europe / /.
  For example: it is normal for companies to suffer significant losses at the start
  The normal is / / there will be greater losses / especially in the start. For example, our foreign secretary on one occasion spelt our objectives in terms of
  Our foreign secretary once stated our objectives / / it mainly includes three simple principles / / I think it is suitable.
  4. The order of adjustment:
  In some sentences with after and before, it can be reversed, such as:
  I would like to make one point clear before I move on
  I want to clarify it first and then againPart。
  After clarifying a point, I'd like to continue the next part.
  I'd like to talk about the next part and clarify a little before that.
  After two bombs in the United States, Japan surrendered in 1945.
  Japan surrendered in 1945, and before that, the United States launched two atomic bombs.
  5. Conversion of speech and voice
  1) noun rotating words
  For example: the development and application of new telecommunication services, if you hear the whole sentence after the subjects began to cut the translation would slightly lagged behind some, at this time we can try these names translated into verbs, this is also in line with the English expression, can be translated as: the development and application of new telecommunication services. Again;
  In China, the overall opening and deepening of the reform of foreign counterparts in the field of public service has greatly promoted the development of the third industry. In China, opening up and deepening the reform of public service and opening it to foreign counterparts will greatly promote the development of the third industry. Correspondingly, there are some similar forms of expression:
  Clear evidence: clearly indicated
  Push: push forcefully
  A clear violation of the violation
  2) passive conversion:
  A lot of English passive sentences, the main purpose is to emphasize or balance of sentence structure, this expression is different with Chinese, so the passive voice in English translation of some difficulty, especially when the subject of the sentence is long and is more difficult, in this case, I would recommend by voice passive into active, often have a feeling of dense willow trees and bright flowers: for example: must make arrangements to ensure the basic necessities of life, in the earthquake stricken people. Arrangements must be made
  Again as follows:
  China's diplomatic practice is guided by the five principles of serious peaceful coexistence. China's diplomatic activities are strictly in accordance with the principles, namely, the 5 principles of peaceful coexistence.
  6. The tricks of error correction:
  Generally speaking, in Si will not come back again to correct the possibility of their mistakes, but not absolute, so if you have a correct space, but to advocate wrong will change. To translate the error correction, should be in the wrong place to add: I mean, or, for the British in turn, in the right place at once more: it should be, or rather, should be
  7. Close to the number:
  Si and CI the biggest difference is the lack of space for the interpreter to reflect, so notes problems encountered in consecutive time in Si is relatively weakened. Aiming at the digital problem in Si must follow the numbers, otherwise unable to save instant memory long time for a lot of numbers.
  8, Diuju abandoning it.
  Because of the nature of the Si content is not possible for the speaker to make 100% of the translation, there is a value judgment and choice of information problems in the inside of the interpreter, regardless of facing a big problem, we must remember: translation activities will regardless of the weather. The so-called Diuju abandoning refers to an interpreter if there hear information some fuzzy don't focus on memories of the fuzzy information, but try to hear and understand the information immediately translated out, at the same time, if the sentence there are too much modification of words in translation when will the choice to ensure the core meaning in the sentence is complete and relatively accurate and in place of translation.
  Such as: from the Pamirs to the east coast, from the north to the Spratly Islands City, everywhere is filled with a great Chinese people celebrating the happy atmosphere of Beijing's successful Olympic bid.
  9. Training methods:
  At the Paris Institute of higher translation, the method of numeric or article recitation is adopted.
  Namely: from the beginning of 300, to a digital stop after the translation, then just continue to go to a number of digital, its theory is based on ability of amphibious training interpreters, namely the left ear into the target language, the brain of the right ear and then listen to the translation of the next part.
  To sum up, interpreting skills can be summed up in eight words: syntacticlinearity, punctuation, repetition, omission.

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